Am J Med. 2021 Nov 30:S0002-9343(21)00785-3. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2021.10.038. Online ahead of print.
Patients presenting to the Emergency Room with consideration of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are risk-stratified with sensitive troponin assays. Among many patients who present with symptoms other than chest pain, they are admitted for observation if the troponin assay is above the upper reference limit of that specific assay. With the advent of high sensitivity troponin assays, it is estimated that the prevalence of admissions for secondary myocardial infarctions, termed Type 2 Myocardial Infarctions and Myocardial Injury, will increase by 100%. This is a heterogeneous population and although adverse outcomes such as readmission and death are high, outcome-based therapies with Guideline-Directed Treatments have not been advanced in this subset. As such, the clinician is often confused about the optimal treatment at hospital discharge. More studies should address the value of specific known therapies in this cohort, that have been shown to improve outcomes in patients with an acute coronary syndrome or Type 1 Myocardial Infarction.