Int J Med Inform. 2021 Oct 2;157:104596. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2021.104596. Online ahead of print.
IMPORTANCE: Diabetes is common amongst hospitalised patients and contributes to increased length of stay and poorer outcomes. Digital transformation, particularly the implementation of electronic medical records (EMRs), is rapidly occurring across the healthcare sector and provides an opportunity to improve the safety and quality of inpatient diabetes care. Alongside this revolution has been a considerable and ongoing evolution of digital interventions to optimise care of inpatients with diabetes including optimisation of EMRs, digital clinical decision support systems (CDSS) and solutions utilising data visibility to allow targeted patient review.
OBJECTIVE: To systematically appraise the recent literature to determine which digitally-enabled interventions including EMR, CDSS and data visibility solutions improve the safety and quality of non-critical care inpatient diabetes management.
METHODS: Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for suitable articles. Selected articles underwent quality assessment and analysis with results grouped by intervention type.
RESULTS: 1202 articles were identified with 42 meeting inclusion criteria. Four key interventions were identified; computerised physician order entry (n = 4), clinician decision support systems (n = 21), EMR driven active case finding (data visibility solutions) and targeted patient review (n = 10) and multicomponent system interventions (n = 7). Studies reported on glucometric outcomes, evidence-based medication ordering including medication errors, and patient and user outcomes. An improvement in glucometric measures particularly mean blood glucose and proportion of target range blood glucose levels and rates of evidence-based insulin prescribing were consistently demonstrated.
CONCLUSION: Digitally-enabled interventions utilised to improve quality and safety of inpatient diabetes care were heterogenous in design. The majority of studies across all intervention types reported positive effects for evidence-based prescribing and glucometric outcomes. There was less evidence for digital interventions reducing diabetes medication administration errors or impacting patient outcomes (length of stay).