Acute hypercapnic respiratory failure and its management on the acute medical take

Link to article at PubMed

Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2021 Oct 2;82(10):1-12. doi: 10.12968/hmed.2021.0251. Epub 2021 Oct 5.


Acute hypercapnic respiratory failure accounts for 50 000 hospital admissions each year in the UK. This article discusses the pathophysiology and common causes of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure, and provides practical considerations for patient management in acute medical settings. Non-invasive ventilation for persistent acute hypercapnic respiratory failure is widely recognised to improve patient outcomes and reduce mortality. National audits highlight a need to improve patients' overall care and outcomes through appropriate patient selection and treatment initiation. Multidisciplinary involvement is essential, as this underpins inpatient care and follow up after hospital discharge. New non-invasive ventilation modalities may offer better patient comfort and compensate better for sleep-related changes in respiratory mechanics. Emerging therapies, such as nasal high flow, may offer an alternative treatment approach in those who cannot tolerate non-invasive ventilation, but more research is required to completely understand its effectiveness in treating acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.

PMID:34726941 | DOI:10.12968/hmed.2021.0251

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