Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2021 Sep 24;22(3):649-657. doi: 10.31083/j.rcm2203075.
Heart failure is a significant health problem worldwide. Despite all the new therapies available nowadays, many patients will reach advanced stages of the disease. Diuretic resistance, kidney dysfunction, and refractory congestion, all highly prevalent in advanced heart failure, frequently complicate the situation, making it more challenging to manage. Ultrafiltration through hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis can be alternative options to treat fluid overload. Peritoneal dialysis has gained increased interest in the last decades due to several benefits such as functional class improvement, reduction in hospital admissions, improvement in quality of life, and even a reduction in mortality shown by numerous cohort studies. However, the majority of the studies were observational and with a limited number of patients. In addition, the optimal timing for the initiation of this type of therapy and the subgroup of patients who would benefit the most from it is unknown. Hence, randomized controlled trials in this subject are urgently needed. We aim to review the contemporary evidence of peritoneal dialysis in patients with heart failure and diuretic resistance across the spectrum of ventricular dysfunction and degree of renal dysfunction.