Perioperative renal protection

Link to article at PubMed

Curr Opin Crit Care. 2021 Sep 15. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000881. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common but underestimated syndrome in the perioperative setting. AKI can be induced by different causes and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, no specific treatment options are available at the moment.

RECENT FINDINGS: AKI is now understood as being a continuum ranging from normal kidney function over AKI and acute kidney disease to ultimately chronic kidney disease. The KDIGO organization recommend in 2012 implementation of preventive bundles in patients at high risk for AKI. In the perioperative setting, relevant measures include hemodynamic optimization, with careful consideration of blood pressure targets, adequate fluid therapy to maintain organ perfusion and avoidance of hyperglycaemia. These measures are most effective if patients at risk are identified as soon as possible and measures are implemented accordingly. Although current point of care functional biomarkers can detect patients at risk earlier than the established damage biomarkers, some components of the preventive bundle are still under investigation.

SUMMARY: Good evidence exists for the use of biomarkers to identify individual patients at risk for AKI and for the implementation of haemodynamic optimization, abdication of nephrotoxins, adequate fluid administration using balanced crystalloid solutions and glycaemic control. The data for using colloids or the degree of nephrotoxicity of contrast media still remain inconclusive.

PMID:34534999 | DOI:10.1097/MCC.0000000000000881

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