Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2021 Sep 7:gfab263. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfab263. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is common in hospitalized patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The Dublin Acute Biomarker Group Evaluation (DAMAGE) Study is a prospective cohort study of critically ill patients (n = 717). We hypothesised that novel urinary biomarkers would predict progression of AKI and associated outcomes.
METHODS: The primary (diagnostic) analysis assessed the ability of biomarkers levels at the time of early Stage 1 or2 AKI to predict progression to higher AKI Stage, RRT or Death within 7 days of ICU admission. In the secondary (prognostic) analysis, we investigated the association between biomarker levels and RRT or Death within 30 days.
RESULTS: In total, 186 patients had an AKI within 7 days of admission. In the primary (diagnostic) analysis, eight of the 14 biomarkers were independently associated with progression. The best predictors were Cystatin C (aOR 5.2; 95% CI, 1.3-23.6), IL-18 (aOR 5.1; 95% CI, 1.8-15.7), Albumin (aOR 4.9; 95% CI, 1.5-18.3) and NGAL (aOR 4.6; 95% CI, 1.4-17.9). ROC and Net Reclassification Index analyses similarly demonstrated improved prediction by these biomarkers. In the secondary (prognostic) analysis of Stage 1-3 AKI cases, IL-18, NGAL, Albumin, and MCP-1 were also independently associated with RRT or Death within 30 days.
CONCLUSIONS: Among 14 novel urinary biomarkers assessed, Cystatin C, IL-18, Albumin and NGAL were the best predictors of Stage 1-2 AKI progression. These biomarkers, after further validation, may have utility to inform diagnostic and prognostic assessment and guide management of AKI in critically ill patients.