Contemporary Rates of Inferior Vena Cava Filter Thrombosis and Risk Factors

Link to article at PubMed

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord. 2021 Aug 20:S2213-333X(21)00412-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jvsv.2021.07.016. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: Inferior vena cava thrombosis is an uncommon complication associated with inferior vena cava filters (IVCF), with literature citing rates ranging from 1% to 31%. Few observational studies describe risk factors associated with IVCF thrombosis, despite the significant clinical sequelae such as post-thrombotic syndrome, venous claudication, and venous ulceration. To better describe IVCF thrombosis and risk factors, data were queried from VQI-participating centers.

METHODS: IVCF data were obtained through the international VQI database from 2013 - 2019. Patients included in this analysis had two-year follow-up. Baseline demographics, medical comorbidities, medication, procedural, anatomical, and post-operative variables were assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves with log-rank tests, Student's t-tests, or Mann-Whitney U tests for IVCF thrombosis at two years. Cox regression analyses identified independent predictors of IVCF thrombosis. A subgroup analysis of those who presented with a venous thromboembolism (VTE) was also performed.

RESULTS: There were 62 US and Canadian VQI-participating centers, including 12,874 cases of IVCF placement. There 78 cases (1.3%) of IVCF thrombosis identified out of a total of 5,780 cases with two-year follow up. Those who experienced IVCF thrombosis had significantly lower rates of diabetes, coronary artery disease, pre-operative antiplatelet medications, pre-operative statins, as well as lower rates of discharge and follow up antiplatelet medications. On univariable analysis, cases of IVCF thrombosis also had higher rates of pulmonary emboli (PE) and VTE on admission, internal jugular venous access (versus femoral vein access), temporary IVCF use, follow up anticoagulation, follow up IVCF complication, follow up access site thrombosis, and rates of new or propagated DVT at follow up, and longer post-operative hospital stays. Multivariable analysis demonstrated independent predictors of IVCF thrombosis included new or propagated DVT at follow up (hazard ratio [HR]=16.3, 95% confident interval (CI) = 9.8 - 27.3, P<.001), no antiplatelet at follow up (HR=4.8, 95% CI= 1.9 - 12.5, P=.001), internal jugular venous access (HR=2.2, 95% CI=1.4 - 3.5, P=.001), VTE on admission (HR=2.7, 95% CI=1.4 - 5.1, P=.002), and temporary IVCF placement (HR=2.5, 95% CI = 1.1 - 5.6, P=.031). In an analysis of the subgroup of patients with VTE on admission, similar predictive factors were identified in a multivariable model, in addition, massive PE was also predictive of IVCF thrombosis in this subgroup.

CONCLUSION: The rate of IVCF thrombosis remained low in a contemporary international database. This study of over 5,000 patients with IVCFs suggests that antiplatelet therapy should be administered after IVCF placement to decreased risk of IVCF thrombosis.

PMID:34425266 | DOI:10.1016/j.jvsv.2021.07.016

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