Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2021 Jul 27. doi: 10.1097/IOP.0000000000002030. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: To report clinical presentations and factors affecting outcomes in rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis following COVID-19.
METHODS: Retrospective multi-centric interventional case series of 58 eyes with rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis. Demography, clinical parameters and management outcomes were noted. Factors affecting outcome and mortality were analyzed. Outcome was defined as favorable when complete resolution or stabilization without further progression of the infection was noted at last visit.
RESULTS: Mean age was 55 ± 11 years (median 56). The mean HbA1c value was 10.44 ± 2.84 mg% (median 10.5). The duration between the diagnosis of COVID-19 and rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis was 16 ± 21 days (median: 8 days). Thirty-six eyes (62%) had no vision at presentation. Imaging revealed paranasal sinus involvement (100%), orbital apex involvement (41%), cavernous sinus involvement (30%), and central nervous system (CNS) involvement (33%). All the patients were treated with systemic Liposomal amphotericin-B and sinus debridement. Twenty-two eyes (38%) underwent exenteration. One eye underwent transcutaneous retrobulbar amphotericin-B. The mean follow-up duration was 5.62 ± 0.78 months (median 6). Favorable outcome was seen in 35 (60%) cases. Presence of uncontrolled diabetes (p = 0.001), orbital apex involvement (p = 0.04), CNS involvement (p = 0.04), and history of steroid use (p < 0.0001) resulted in unfavorable outcome. CNS involvement was the only factor predicting mortality (p = 0.03). Mortality was seen in 20 (34%) patients.
CONCLUSION: Over a third of patients with rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis following COVID-19 have an unfavorable clinical outcome. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus at presentation, involvement of the orbital apex, CNS, and the usage of steroids were associated with poorer outcomes. CNS involvement was a factor determining mortality.