Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 Jun;42(3):449-459. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1729172. Epub 2021 May 24.
Survival in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) lags behind heart, liver, and kidney transplant, in part due to the direct and indirect effects of infection. LTRs have increased susceptibility to infection due to the combination of a graft continually exposed to the outside world, multiple mechanisms for impaired mucus clearance, and immunosuppression. Community-acquired respiratory viral infections (CARVs) are common in LTRs. Picornaviruses have roughly 40% cumulative incidence followed by respiratory syncytial virus and coronaviruses. Although single-center retrospective and prospective series implicate CARV in rejection and mortality, conclusive evidence for and well-defined mechanistic links to long-term outcome are lacking. Treatment of viral infections can be challenging except for influenza. Future studies are needed to develop better treatments and clarify the links between CARV and long-term outcomes.