Heart. 2021 May 14:heartjnl-2020-318750. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2020-318750. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: Optimal antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) beyond 1 year after coronary stent implantation has not been well established in the era of direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC).
METHODS: Using Korean National Health Insurance Service data, we analysed 4294 patients with AF who were prescribed DOAC beyond 1 year after coronary stent implantation. Subjects were classified into the monotherapy group (DOAC single therapy, n=1221) or the combination therapy group (DOAC with an antiplatelet agent, n=3073). The primary ischaemic endpoint was defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke or systemic thromboembolism. The secondary endpoints were all-cause death, major bleeding defined as a bleeding event requiring hospitalisation and net adverse clinical events. Propensity score matching was performed to balance baseline covariates.
RESULTS: Among included patients, 94% had drug-eluting coronary stents. During a median follow-up of 19 (7-32) months, the monotherapy group had a similar risk of the primary ischaemic endpoint (HR 0.828, 95% CI 0.660 to 1.038) and all-cause death (HR 1.076, 95% CI 0.895 to 1.294) compared with the combination therapy group. Risk of major bleeding was lower in the monotherapy group (HR 0.690, 95% CI 0.481 to 0.989), which was mostly driven by reduced gastrointestinal bleeding (HR 0.562, 95% CI 0.358 to 0.883). There was no significant difference in net adverse clinical events between the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS: DOAC monotherapy showed similar efficacy in preventing ischaemic events and was associated with lower major bleeding events compared with combination therapy in patients with AF beyond 1 year after coronary stent implantation.