Clin Investig Arterioscler. 2021 May;33 Suppl 1:46-52. doi: 10.1016/j.arteri.2020.12.005.
The use of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc)-lowering medications has led to a significant reduction of cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention. Statins represent the cornerstone of lipid-lowering treatment and substantially decreases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, there are still unmet clinical needs in the management of dyslipidaemia. Indeed, it is difficult to achieve LDLc targets in many patients, particularly in those at high/very high cardiovascular risk and in those with very high baseline LDLc concentrations. Moreover, a considerable proportion of patients are unable to tolerate maximum statin doses, mostly due to muscle-related adverse effects. In the present narrative review, a summary is presented on the current knowledge on the effects of the different cholesterol-lowering drugs, including those recently approved by European and American regulatory agencies, on lipid profile, and on cardiovascular risk. Since difficult-to-treat patients may benefit from new combination therapies as a result of the emergence of new drugs with clinical evidence, updates of the clinical guidelines would be recommended.