Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2021 May 8. doi: 10.2174/1389201022666210509022313. Online ahead of print.
The coronavirus pandemic has hit the world lately and caused acute respiratory syndrome in humans. The causative agent of the disease was soon brought to focus by scientists as SARS-CoV-2 and later called a novel coronavirus by the general public. Due to the severity and rapid spread of the disease, WHO classifies the COVID-19 pandemic as the 6th public health emergency even after taking efforts like worldwide quarantine and restrictions. Since only symptomatic treatment is available, the best way to control the spread of the virus is by taking preventive measures. Various types of antigen/antibody detection kits and diagnostic methods are available for the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients. In recent years, various phytochemicals and repurposing drugs are showing a broad range of anti-viral activities with different modes of action have been identified. Repurposing drugs such as arbidol, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, hexamethylene amiloride, and dexamethasone, tocilizumab, interferon-β, neutralizing antibodies exhibit in vitro anti-coronaviral properties by inhibiting multiple processes in the virus life cycle. Various research groups are involved in drug trials and vaccine development. Plant-based anti-viral compounds such as baicalin, calanolides, curcumin, oxymatrine, matrine, and resveratrol exhibit different modes of action against a wide range of positive/negative sense-RNA/DNA virus, and future researches need to be conducted to ascertain their role, use in managing SARS-CoV-2. Thus, this article is an attempt to review the current understanding of COVID-19 acute respiratory disease and summarize its clinical features with their prospective control and various aspects of the therapeutic approach.