Neurol Clin. 2021 May;39(2):513-544. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2021.01.009.
Seizures are frequently triggered by an inciting event and result from uninhibited excitation and/or decreased inhibition of a pool of neurons. If physiologic seizure abortive mechanisms fail, the ensuing unrestrained synchronization of neurons-status epilepticus-can be life-threatening and is associated with the potential for marked morbidity in survivors and high medical care costs. Prognosis is intimately related to etiology and its response to therapeutic measures. Timely implementation of pharmacologic therapy while concurrently performing a stepwise workup for etiology are paramount. Neurodiagnostic testing should guide titration of pharmacologic therapies, and help determine if there is a role for immune modulation.