Clin Imaging. 2021 Apr 14;79:12-19. doi: 10.1016/j.clinimag.2021.04.002. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: To report imaging findings at computed tomography angiography (CTA) and venography (CTV) of the abdomen and pelvis in evaluation of hemorrhagic and thrombotic lesions in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, patients admitted to a single tertiary care center from April 1 to July 20, 2020, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and developed acute abdominal pain or decreasing hemoglobin levels over the course of hospitalization were included. Abdominal CTA/CTV imaging studies performed in these patients were reviewed, and acute hemorrhagic or thromboembolic findings were recorded.
RESULTS: A total of 40 patients (mean age, 59.7 years; 20 men, 20 women) were evaluated. Twenty-five patients (62.5%) required intensive care unit (ICU) admission and 15 patients (37.5%) were treated in the medical ward. Hemorrhagic complications were detected in 19 patients (47.5%), the most common was intramuscular hematoma diagnosed in 17 patients; It involved the iliopsoas compartment unilaterally in 10 patients, bilaterally in 2 patients and the rectus sheath in 5 cases. Pelvic extraperitoneal hemorrhage was found in 3 patients, and mesenteric hematoma in one patient. Thromboembolic events were diagnosed in 8 patients (20%) including; arterial thrombosis (n = 2), venous thrombosis (n = 2), splenic infarct (n = 1), bowel ischemia (n = 1) and multiple sites of thromboembolism (n = 2).
CONCLUSION: Our study highlights that both hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications can be seen in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. It is important that radiologists maintain a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis of these complications.