Crit Care Med. 2021 Apr 2. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000004948. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: Cardiogenic shock presents with variable severity. Categorizing cardiogenic shock into clinical stages may improve risk stratification and patient selection for therapies. We sought to determine whether a structured implementation of the 2019 Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions clinical cardiogenic shock staging criteria that is ascertainable in clinical registries discriminates mortality in a contemporary population with or at-risk for cardiogenic shock.
DESIGN: We developed a pragmatic application of the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions cardiogenic shock staging criteria-A (at-risk), B (beginning), C (classic cardiogenic shock), D (deteriorating), or E (extremis)-and examined outcomes by stage.
SETTING: The Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network is an investigator-initiated multicenter research collaboration coordinated by the TIMI Study Group (Boston, MA). Consecutive admissions with or at-risk for cardiogenic shock during two annual 2-month collection periods (2017-2019) were analyzed.
PATIENTS: Patients with or at-risk for cardiogenic shock.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 8,240 CICU admissions reviewed, 1,991 (24%) had or were at-risk for cardiogenic shock. Distributions across the five stages were as follows: A: 33%; B: 7%; C: 16%; D: 23%; and E: 21%. Overall in-hospital mortality among patients with established cardiogenic shock was 39%; however, mortality varied from only 15.8% to 32.1% to 62.5% across stages C, D, and E (Cochran-Armitage ptrend < 0.0001). The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions stages improved mortality prediction beyond the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment and Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumpin Cardiogenic Shock II scores.
CONCLUSIONS: Although overall mortality in cardiogenic shock remains high, it varies considerably based on clinical stage, identifying stage C as relatively lower risk. We demonstrate a pragmatic adaptation of the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions cardiogenic shock stages that effectively stratifies mortality risk and could be leveraged for future clinical research.