Hyponatremia is associated with poor outcome in COVID-19

Link to article at PubMed

J Nephrol. 2021 Apr 7. doi: 10.1007/s40620-021-01036-8. Online ahead of print.


AIM: Our objective was to describe the impact of hyponatremia on the outcomes of COVID-19 patients [outcomes selected: intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation or death].

METHODS: Two groups of COVID-19 patients were retrospectively screened on the basis of plasma sodium level at admission: hyponatremic (sodium < 135 mM, n = 92) or normonatremic (sodium ≥ 135 mM, n = 198) patients. Pearson's chi-2 (qualitative variables) and Student's T tests (quantitative variables) were used to compare the two groups. A multiple logistic regression model was used to explore the association between patients' clinical data and outcomes.

RESULTS: Hyponatremia was frequent but generally mild. There were more male patients in the hyponatremic group (p = 0.014). Pulmonary lesions on the first thoracic CT-scan performed during hospitalization were significantly more extensive in the hyponatremic group (p = 0.010). ICU admission, mechanical ventilation or death were significantly more frequent in hyponatremic compared to normonatremic patients (37 versus 14%; p < 0.001; 17 versus 6%; p = 0.003; 18 versus 9%, p = 0.042, respectively). Hyponatremia was an independent predictor of adverse outcomes (adjusted Odds-ratio: 2.77 [1.26-6.15, p = 0.011]).

CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed an independent relationship between hyponatremia at admission and transfer to ICU, use of mechanical ventilation or death in COVID-19 patients. Hyponatremia may reflect the severity of underlying pulmonary lesions. Our results support the use of sodium levels as a simple bedside screening tool for the early identification of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients at high risk of poor outcome.

PMID:33826113 | DOI:10.1007/s40620-021-01036-8

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