HIV Med. 2021 Mar 31. doi: 10.1111/hiv.13097. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: Despite better access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) over recent years, HIV remains a major global cause of mortality. The present study aimed to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality among HIV-positive patients presenting to an emergency department (ED).
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, HIV-positive patients presenting to the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital adult ED between 07 July 2017 and 18 October 2018 were prospectively enrolled. Data were compared between participants who survived to hospital discharge and those who died. The data were further subjected to univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine variables that were associated with in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS: Of a total of 1224 participants, the in-hospital mortality was 13.6% (n = 166). On multivariate analysis, respiratory rate > 20 breaths/min [odds ratio (OR) = 1.90, P = 0.012], creatinine > 120 μmol/L (OR = 1.97, P = 0.006), oxygen saturation < 90% (OR = 2.09, P = 0.011), white cell count < 4.0 × 109 /L (OR = 2.09, P = 0.008), ART non-adherence or not yet on ART (OR = 2.39, P = 0.012), Glasgow Coma Scale < 15 (OR = 2.53, P = 0.000), albumin < 35 g/L (OR = 2.61, P = 0.002), lactate > 2 mmol/L (OR = 4.83, P = 0.000) and cryptococcal meningitis (OR = 6.78, P = 0.000) were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Routine clinical and laboratory parameters are useful predictors of in-hospital mortality in HIV-positive patients presenting to the ED with an acute illness. These parameters may be of value in guiding clinical decision-making, directing the appropriate use of resources and influencing patient disposition, and may also be useful in developing an outcome prediction tool.