Cureus. 2021 Feb 18;13(2):e13429. doi: 10.7759/cureus.13429.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) use prior to hospitalization on clinical outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.
DESIGN: An observational retrospective cohort study from 178 hospitals from a large health system across the United States. Patient population: Hospitalized patients (n=2726) with confirmed COVID-19 between January 1, 2020, and April 1, 2020. Main outcome(s) and measure(s): Outcomes during hospitalization, including disease severity by level of care, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilator (MV) use, hospital length of stay, and in-hospital death. Patient demographics and comorbidities were also recorded.
RESULTS: A total of 2,726 patients were included in the analysis. Three hundred ninety-eight (14.6%) patients were taking an ACEI, while 352 (12.9%) patients were taking an ARB prior to hospitalization. After adjusting for comorbidities, age, renal function, and severity of illness based on level of care, ACEI prior to admission was independently associated with decreased need for MV (odds ratio [OR] 0.56, p value 0.003) and mortality (OR 0.45, p value <0.001). Similarly, patients who took ARBs were less likely to require MV when compared to the non-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade (RAASb) group (7.4% vs 12.2%, p value 0.009, respectively). ARB prior to admission was also independently associated with decreased need for MV (OR 0.46, p value 0.001) and mortality (OR 0.66, p value 0.017) compared to the non-RAASb group.
CONCLUSION: Taking ACEIs and ARBs prior to admission for COVID-19 was independently associated with decreased need for mechanical ventilation and in-hospital mortality.