Clinical Features and Risk Factors for In-Hospital Mortality From COVID-19 Infection at a Tertiary Care Medical Center, at the Onset of the US COVID-19 Pandemic

Link to article at PubMed

J Intensive Care Med. 2021 Mar 24:8850666211001799. doi: 10.1177/08850666211001799. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Mortality from COVID-19 has been associated with older age, black race, and comorbidities including obesity, Understanding the clinical risk factors and laboratory biomarkers associated with severe and fatal COVID-19 will allow early interventions to help mitigate adverse outcomes. Our study identified risk factors for in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19 infection at a tertiary care center, in Detroit, Michigan.

METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study at a 776-bed tertiary care urban academic medical center. Adult inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (nasopharyngeal swab testing positive by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay) from March 8, 2020, to June 14, 2020, were included. Clinical information including the presence of comorbid conditions (according to the Charlson Weighted Index of Comorbidity (CWIC)), initial vital signs, admission laboratory markers and management data were collected. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.

RESULTS: Among 565 hospitalized patients, 172 patients died for a case fatality rate of 30.4%. The mean (SD) age of the cohort was 64.4 (16.2) years, and 294 (52.0%) were male. The patients who died were significantly older (mean [SD] age, 70.4 [14.1] years vs 61.7 [16.1] years; P < 0.0001), more likely to have congestive heart failure (35 [20.3%] vs 47 [12.0%]; P = 0.009), dementia (47 [27.3%] vs 48 [12.2%]; P < 0.0001), hemiplegia (18 [10.5%] vs 18 [4.8%]; P = 0.01) and a diagnosis of malignancy (16 [9.3%] vs 18 [4.6%]; P = 0.03).From multivariable analysis, factors associated with an increased odds of death were age greater than 60 years (OR = 2.2, P = 0.003), CWIC score (OR = 1.1, P = 0.023), qSOFA (OR = 1.7, P < 0.0001), WBC counts (OR = 1.1, P = 0.002), lymphocytopenia (OR = 2.0, P = 0.003), thrombocytopenia (OR = 1.9, P = 0.019), albumin (OR = 0.6, P = 0.014), and AST levels (OR = 2.0, P = 0.004) on admission.

CONCLUSIONS: This study identified risk factor for in-hospital mortality among patients admitted with COVID-19 in a tertiary care hospital at the onset of U.S. Covid-19 pandemic. After adjusting for age, CWIC score, and laboratory data, qSOFA remained an independent predictor of mortality. Knowing these risk factors may help identify patients who would benefit from close observations and early interventions.

PMID:33759606 | DOI:10.1177/08850666211001799

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