Heart Fail Clin. 2021 Apr;17(2):167-177. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2021.01.004. Epub 2021 Feb 10.
Stage A heart failure (HF) patients do not show HF symptoms or any structural heart disease but are at risk of HF development. Cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, and exposure to cardiotoxic agents) characterize subjects affected by stage A HF. It is essential to identify these subjects early and ensure that, despite being asymptomatic, they grasp the importance of undertaking correct lifestyle and therapeutic interventions. A careful stratification of asymptomatic subject's risk profile is needed to adopt proper preventive strategies and to set individualized therapeutic targets that avoid progression to advanced stages of HF.