Relationship between blood eosinophil levels and COVID-19 mortality

Link to article at PubMed

World Allergy Organ J. 2021 Mar;14(3):100521. doi: 10.1016/j.waojou.2021.100521. Epub 2021 Feb 11.


OBJECTIVES: A novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is causing the worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak with high mortality. A unique finding among COVID-19 patients was a decline of eosinophil levels (eosinopenia). However, results from previous studies on the relationship between eosinopenia and disease severity were inconsistent. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between eosinopenia and COVID-19 mortality as well as the clinical conditions that could potentially lead to mortality.

METHODS: One hundred ninety patients diagnosed as moderate, severe, or critical COVID-19 at hospital admission were enrolled. Data collected from patients' medical records on the second day after hospital admission included medical histories, clinical symptoms, chest images of computed tomography (CT), laboratory examinations, and outcomes.

RESULTS: Eosinophil levels were significantly lower in patients with critical disease, when compared to those with moderate and severe diseases. After controlled for confounding factors, ie, age, gender, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and chronic lung disease, a progressive decline of eosinophil levels was independently associated with mortality. Moreover, eosinophil levels significantly and positively correlated with platelet and D-dimer levels but significantly and inversely correlated with serum levels of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase.

CONCLUSIONS: Eosinopenia, if progressively worsening, indicates that COVID-19 patients may progress to critical disease and have a significantly higher chance of mortality. Additionally, eosinopenia correlates with biomarkers of coagulation disorder and those of tissue damage in kidney, liver, and other tissues.

PMID:33589865 | PMC:PMC7877210 | DOI:10.1016/j.waojou.2021.100521

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