J Diabetes Res. 2021 Jan 6;2021:6666086. doi: 10.1155/2021/6666086. eCollection 2021.
BACKGROUND: The risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) development in patients with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 have not been fully studied yet. In this study, we aimed to estimate the rate of AKI among the hospitalized population with COVID-19 and to identify the risk factors associated with AKI among patients with diabetes. Material and Methods. This retrospective cohort study included 254 patients (127 with diabetes and 127 without diabetes) who were admitted for COVID-19 to a tertiary hospital in Tehran, Iran, between February and May 2020. Clinical characteristics and outcomes, radiological findings, and laboratory data, including data on AKI, hematuria, and proteinuria were recorded and analyzed.
RESULTS: Of 254 patients, 142 (55.9%) were male and the mean (± SD) age was 65.7 years (±12.5). In total, 58 patients (22.8%) developed AKI during hospitalization, of whom 36 patients had diabetes (p = 0.04); most patients (74.1%) had stage 1 or 2 AKI. Also, 8 patients (13.8%) required renal replacement therapy (RRT) after developing AKI. Regardless of diabetes status, patients who developed AKI had significantly higher mortality rates compared with patients who did not develop AKI (p = 0.02). Hematuria and proteinuria were observed in 38.1% and 55% of patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that invasive mechanical ventilation, proteinuria, HBA1c level, history of cardiovascular disease, and use of statins were independent risk factors for AKI development in patients with diabetes.
CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that AKI develops in a considerable percentage of patients with COVID-19, especially in those with diabetes, and is significantly associated with mortality.