Eur J Pharmacol. 2021 Jan 25:173899. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.173899. Online ahead of print.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak is a major public health concern, which has accounted for >1.7 million deaths across the world. A surge in the case fatality ratio as compared with the infection ratio has been observed in most of the countries. The novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 shares the most common sequence with SARS-CoV, but it has a higher rate of transmission. The SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis is initiated by the binding of viral spike protein with the target receptor Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) facilitating virus internalization within host cells. SARS-CoV-2 mainly causes alveolar damage ranging from mild to severe clinical respiratory manifestations. Most of the cases have revealed the association of Coronavirus disease with patients having earlier comorbidities like Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, and Cerebrovascular diseases. Pharmacological investigation of the SARS-Cov-2 patients has revealed the frequent use of drugs belongs to Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and/or Angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs). Interestingly, a significant increase in ACE2 expression was noticed in patients routinely treated with the above group of drugs were also reported. To date, the association of ACEi and/or ARBs with the up-regulation of ACE2 expression has not been defined distinctively. The proposed review will focus on the pathways which are responsible for the upregulation of ACE2 and its impact on gravity of SARS-CoV-2 disease.