Noninvasive ventilation and high-flow oxygen therapy for severe community-acquired pneumonia

Link to article at PubMed

Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 1;34(2):142-150. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000715.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the evidence on the use of noninvasive respiratory supports (noninvasive ventilation and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy) in patients with acute respiratory failure because of severe community-acquired pneumonia.

RECENT FINDINGS: Noninvasive ventilation is strongly advised for the treatment of hypercapnic respiratory failure and recent evidence justifies its use in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure when delivered by helmet. Indeed, such interface allows alveolar recruitment by providing high level of positive end-expiratory pressure, which improves hypoxemia. On the other hand, high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy is effective in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure and some articles support its use in patients with hypercapnia. However, early identification of noninvasive respiratory supports treatment failure is crucial to prevent delayed orotracheal intubation and protective invasive mechanical ventilation.

SUMMARY: Noninvasive ventilation is the first-line therapy in patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure because of pneumonia. Although an increasing amount of evidence investigated the application of noninvasive respiratory support to hypoxemic respiratory failure, the optimal ventilatory strategy in this setting is uncertain. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation delivered by helmet and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy appear as promising tools but their role needs to be confirmed by future research.

PMID:33470666 | DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000715

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