J Clin Gastroenterol. 2021 Apr 1;55(4):279-299. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001485.
GOAL: A comprehensive review of treatments for nausea and vomiting (N/V).
BACKGROUND: N/V are common symptoms encountered in medicine. While most cases of acute N/V related to a specific cause can be straightforward to manage, other cases of acute N/V such as chemotherapy-induced N/V and especially chronic unexplained N/V can be difficult to control, leading to a significant decline in the patient's quality of life and increased cost of medical care from repeated hospitalizations.
STUDY: Traditional management has relied on pharmacotherapy which may be inadequate in a certain proportion of these patients. Many of the medications used in the management of N/V have significant side effect profiles making the need for new and improved interventions of great importance.
RESULTS: This review covers a broad review of the pathophysiology of N/V, pharmacotherapy, including safety concerns and controversies with established pharmaceuticals, newer immunotherapies, bioelectrical neuromodulation (including gastric electrical stimulation), behavioral and surgical therapies, and complementary medicine.
CONCLUSION: On the basis of emerging understandings of the pathophysiology of N/V, improved therapies are becoming available.