Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2021 Jan 18. doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000956. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness combines a syndrome of viral replication and a host dysregulated inflammatory response. Despite sharing a similar etiology, COVID-19 patients present different patterns from asymptomatic to severely hypoxemic patients. In some patients, patterns of multiorgan failure have been observed similarly to patients with bacterial sepsis. This review aimed to analyze the currently available data on the treatment of COVID-19, specifically the most studied antiviral agents and therapies targeting the immune system including those that have been investigated in sepsis.
RECENT FINDINGS: In the last months, several trials have been conducted worldwide to try to identify optimal antiviral treatments against COVID-19. Antiviral agents such as lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine have been investigated as well as specific and non-specific immunomodulators in order to determine their potential efficacy against SARS-Cov2.
SUMMARY: To date, the vast majority of the studied antiviral and immunomodulatory agents have failed to improve outcomes of patients with COVID-19 except for dexamethasone. Many other trials are currently underway with new antiviral agents and various immunomodulatory agents with potential clinical benefit for COVID-19 patients. Despite these emerging data, robust controlled clinical trials assessing patient-centered outcomes remain imperative.