BMJ Open. 2021 Jan 4;11(1):e040837. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040837.
OBJECTIVES: To set up a prediction model for the 7-day in-hospital mortality of patients admitted from the emergency department (ED) because it is high but no appropriate initial alarm score is available.
DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study for prediction model development.
SETTING: In a tertiary referred hospital in northern Taiwan.
PARTICIPANTS: ED-admitted medical patients in hospitalist care wards were enrolled during May 2010 to October 2016. Two-thirds of them were randomly assigned to a derivation cohort for development of the model and cross-validation was performed in the validation cohort.
PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURED: 7-day in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS: During the study period, 8649 patients were enrolled for analysis. The mean age was 71.05 years, and 51.91% were male. The most common admission diagnoses were pneumonia (36%) and urinary tract infection (20.05%). In the derivation cohort, multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression revealed that a low Barthel Index Score, triage level 1 at the ED, presence of cancer, metastasis and admission diagnoses of pneumonia and sepsis were independently associated with 7 days in-hospital mortality. Based on the probability developed from the multivariable model, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in the derivation group was 0.81 (0.79-0.85). The result in the validation cohort was comparable. The prediction score modified by the six independent factors had high sensitivity of 88.03% and a negative predictive value of 99.51% for a cut-off value of 4, whereas the specificity and positive predictive value were 89.61% and 10.55%, respectively, when the cut-off value was a score of 6.
CONCLUSION: The 7-day in-hospital mortality in the hospitalist care ward is 2.8%. The initial alarm score could help clinicians to prioritise or exclude patients who need urgent and intensive care.