2021 Feb 17. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan–.
The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus entails replacing the actions of the beta cells of the pancreatic islet to detect the needs of insulin and to have insulin administered according to the needs of the patient's body. This activity reviews the indications for the use of insulin, its mechanism of action, routes of administration, contraindications, adverse effects, monitoring its blood concentrations as well as toxicity. It also describes in detail how insulin leads to shifts of electrolytes between the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Also, this activity summarizes the cellular production of insulin as well its function via its receptor and the numerous effects on carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism.