J Intensive Care Med. 2021 Apr;36(4):500-508. doi: 10.1177/0885066620981015. Epub 2020 Dec 22.
BACKGROUND: The available information on the echocardiographic features of cardiac injury related to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and their prognostic value are scattered in the different literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the echocardiographic features of cardiac injury related to COVID-19 and their prognostic value.
METHODS: Published studies were identified through searching PubMed, Embase (Elsevier), and Google scholar databases. The search was performed using the different combinations of the keywords "echocard*," "cardiac ultrasound," "TTE," "TEE," "transtho*," or "transeso*" with "COVID-19," "sars-COV-2," "novel corona, or "2019-nCOV." Two researchers independently screened the titles and abstracts and full texts of articles to identify studies that evaluated the echocardiographic features of cardiac injury related to COVID-19 and/or their prognostic values.
RESULTS: Of 783 articles retrieved from the initial search, 11 (8 cohort and 3 cross-sectional studies) met our eligibility criteria. Rates of echocardiographic abnormalities in COVID-19 patients varied across different studies as follow: RV dilatation from 15.0% to 48.9%; RV dysfunction from 3.6% to 40%; and LV dysfunction 5.4% to 40.0%. Overall, the RV abnormalities were more common than LV abnormalities. The majority of the studies showed that there was a significant association between RV abnormalities and the severe forms and death of COVID-19.
CONCLUSION: The available evidence suggests that RV dilatation and dysfunction may be the most prominent echocardiographic abnormality in symptomatic patients with COVID-19, especially in those with more severe or deteriorating forms of the disease. Also, RV dysfunction should be considered as a poor prognostic factor in COVID-19 patients.