J Gene Med. 2020 Dec 10:e3303. doi: 10.1002/jgm.3303. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: At the end of December 2019, a novel coronavirus tentatively named SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, a central city in China, was announced by the World Health Organization (WHO). SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus that has become a major public health concern after the outbreak of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and 2012, respectively. As of October 29, 2020, the total number of COVID-19 cases had reached over 44 million worldwide, with more than 1.17 million confirmed deaths.
DISCUSSION: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients usually present with severe viral pneumonia. Similar to SARS-CoV, the virus enters respiratory tract cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor 2. The structural proteins play an essential role in budding the virus particles released from different host cells. To date, an approved vaccine or treatment option of a preventive character to avoid severe courses of COVID-19 is still not available.
CONCLUSION: In this study, we provide a brief review of the general biological features of CoVs and explain the pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, and diagnostic approaches regarding monitoring future infectivity and prevent emerging COVID-19 infections.