Clin Cardiol. 2020 Dec 9. doi: 10.1002/clc.23506. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The improved life expectancy observed in patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has made age-related cardiovascular complications, including arrhythmias, a growing health concern.
HYPOTHESIS: We describe the temporal trends in frequency of various arrhythmias and assess impact of arrhythmias on hospitalized HIV patients using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS).
METHODS: Data on HIV-related hospitalizations from 2005 to 2014 were obtained from the NIS database using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) codes. Data was further subclassified into hospitalizations with associated arrhythmias and those without. Baseline demographics and comorbidities were determined. Outcomes including in-hospital mortality, cost of care, and length of stay were extracted. SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) was utilized for analysis. A multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of arrhythmias among hospitalized HIV patients.
RESULTS: Among 2 370 751 HIV-related hospitalizations identified, the overall frequency of any arrhythmia was 3.01%. Atrial fibrillation (AF) was the most frequent arrhythmia (2110 per 100 000). The overall frequency of arrhythmias increased over time by 108%, primarily due to a 132% increase in AF. Arrhythmias are more frequent among older males, lowest income quartile, and nonelective admissions. Patients with arrhythmias had a higher in-hospital mortality rate (9.6%). In-hospital mortality among patients with arrhythmias decreased over time by 43.8%. The cost of care and length of stay associated with arrhythmia-related hospitalizations were mostly unchanged.
CONCLUSIONS: Arrhythmias are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in hospitalized HIV patients. AF is the most frequent arrhythmia in hospitalized HIV patients.