Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2020 Nov 19. doi: 10.1007/s40256-020-00453-7. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), with an incidence of 1-2%, is a clinical syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality despite therapeutic advancements and ongoing clinical trials. A recent therapeutic approach to patients with ADHF includes combination therapy with hypertonic saline solution (HSS) and furosemide, based on the hypothesis that resistance to loop diuretics occurs because of achievement of plateau in water and sodium excretion in patients receiving long-term loop diuretic therapy.
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficiency of combination HSS plus furosemide therapy in patients with ADHF in terms of mortality, readmissions, length of hospital stay, kidney function, urine output, body weight, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP).
METHODS: A total of 14 studies-four observational and ten randomized studies (total 3398 patients)-were included in the meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Our results demonstrate the superiority of combination HSS plus furosemide therapy over furosemide alone in terms of kidney function preservation (mean creatinine difference - 0.33 mg/dL; P < 0.00001), improved diuresis (mean difference [MD] 581.94 mL/24 h; P < 0.00001) and natriuresis (MD 57.19; P < 0.00001), weight loss (MD 0.99 kg; P < 0.00001), duration of hospital stay (MD - 2.72 days; P < 0.00001), readmissions (relative risk 0.63; P = 0.01), and mortality (relative risk 0.55; P < 0.00001). However, no difference in BNP levels was detected (MD 19.88 pg/mL; P = 0.50).
CONCLUSION: Despite the heterogeneity and possible risk of bias among the studies, results appear promising on multiple aspects. A clear need exists for future randomized controlled trials investigating the role of combination HSS plus furosemide therapy to clarify these effects and their possible mechanisms.