Heart Fail Rev. 2020 Nov 16. doi: 10.1007/s10741-020-10037-x. Online ahead of print.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 42.5 million people globally resulting in the death of over 1.15 million subjects. It has inflicted severe public health and economic hardships across the world. In addition to acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure, sepsis, and acute kidney injury, COVID-19 also causes heart failure (HF). COVID-19-induced HF is manifested via different mechanisms, including, but not limited to, (1) virus-induced infiltration of inflammatory cells, which could impair the function of the heart; (2) pro-inflammatory cytokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-1β; interleukin-6; tumor necrosis factor-α) that could cause necrosis and death of the myocardium; (3) endothelial injury coupled with micro-thrombosis which could damage the endocardium; and (4) acute respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory failure that could lead to heart failure due to severe hypoxia. It is concluded that the etiology of COVID-19-induced HF is multifactorial and mitigation of the development of HF in patients with COVID-19 will require different approaches such as social distancing, drug therapy, and the urgent development of a vaccine to eradicate the disease.