Cureus. 2020 Oct 12;12(10):e10918. doi: 10.7759/cureus.10918.
Introduction Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the reason for the global pandemic that started from Wuhan, China, in December 2019, known as coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19). Acute respiratory distress syndrome happened in COVID-19 not just because of uncontrolled viral replication but also because of an uncontrolled immune reaction from the host. That's why antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatments have become an increasing concern for clinicians. Methods A retrospective quasi-experimental study design was used to assess the effectiveness of methylprednisolone and dexamethasone in the improvement of PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio in COVID-19 patients. We included 60 participants for this study by using a convenient sampling technique and divided them into two groups with 30 patients in each group. Group 1 was given dexamethasone 8 mg twice daily, and group 1 given methylprednisolone 40 mg twice daily for eight days. We recorded C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin level, and P/F ratio before administration of both drugs and after administration of drugs for eight days. We used the paired t-test to assess the effect of both drugs on the P/F ratio of participants. Results The initial mean CRP in group 1 was 110.34, which reduced to 19.45 after administration of dexamethasone; similarly, the CRP in group 2 was 108.65, which reduced to 43.82 after administering methylprednisolone for eight days. In P/F ratio improvement, the calculated significance value for dexamethasone (p=0.000) was less than the table value at 0.05 in all sections, p-value for methylprednisolone (p=0.009) was also less than the table value at 0.05, which shows that both dexamethasone and methylprednisolone were effective in improving P/F ratio. Calculated p-value for dexamethasone (p=0.000) was lower than the calculated p-value for methylprednisolone (p=0.009), which shows that dexamethasone is more effective as compare to methylprednisolone. Conclusions Steroid therapy is effective in controlling inflammation markers, and especially dexamethasone is significantly effective in improving the P/F ratio in COVID-19 patients.