Curr Hypertens Rep. 2020 Oct 31;22(12):102. doi: 10.1007/s11906-020-01116-3.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In chronic kidney disease (CKD), plasma uric acid levels are increased because of the decrease in glomerular filtration rate. However, in addition to CKD, hyperuricemia is frequently associated with a number of other conditions such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and heart failure, overweight, and cardiovascular disease.
RECENT FINDINGS: It is now becoming increasingly clear that, in many clinical conditions, elevated levels of uric acid have a much greater role beyond just causing gout. The present review will summarize current knowledge on the relation between hyperuricemia, CKD, and existing comorbidities, as well as the mechanisms of uric acid-related renal damage. In addition, the role and evidence for urate-lowering therapy in prevention and cardiovascular protection in CKD patients is discussed with a focus on allopurinol and febuxostat. To date, several clinical studies have provided evidence that urate-lowering therapy may help to prevent and delay the decline of renal function in patients with CKD. Use of a xanthine oxidase inhibitor should be considered in patients who are at high renal risk and/or with declining renal function in the presence of hyperuricemia with and without deposition, although additional studies are warranted to define treatment targets. Notwithstanding, the possibility to delay deterioration of renal function in patients with CKD merits consideration.