Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 29;10(1):18665. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-75618-0.
SARS-CoV-2 infection shows a wide-ranging clinical severity, requiring prognostic markers. We focused on S100B, a calcium-binding protein present in biological fluids, being a reliable biomarker in disorders having inflammatory processes as common basis and RAGE as main receptor. Since Covid-19 is characterized by a potent inflammatory response also involving RAGE, we tested if S100B serum levels were related to disease severity. Serum samples (n = 74) were collected from hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 positive patients admitted to Covid center. Illness severity was established by admission clinical criteria and Covid risk score. Treatment protocols followed WHO guidelines available at the time. Circulating S100B was determined by ELISA assay. Statistical analysis used Pearson's χ2 test, t-Test, and ANOVA, ANCOVA, Linear Regression. S100B was detected in serum from Covid-19 patients, significantly correlating with disease severity as shown both by the level of intensity of care (p < 0.006) as well by the value of Covid score (Multiple R-squared: 0.3751); the correlation between Covid-Score and S100B was 0.61 (p < 0.01). S100B concentration was associated with inflammation markers (Ferritin, C-Reactive Protein, Procalcitonin), and organ damage markers (Alanine Aminotransferase, Creatinine). Serum S100B plays a role in Covid-19 and can represent a marker of clinical severity in Sars-CoV-2 infected patients.