Clin Chem Lab Med. 2020 Oct 23:/j/cclm.ahead-of-print/cclm-2020-1212/cclm-2020-1212.xml. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2020-1212. Online ahead of print.
Objectives Serum biomarkers have suboptimal accuracy for the early diagnosis of bacterial infection (BI) in cirrhosis. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of presepsin (PSP) in a cohort of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. Methods All adult cirrhotics admitted between 03.2016 and 06.2019 were consecutively evaluated. PSP was measured using chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay, and its accuracy was compared with that of common biomarkers. Results A total of 278 cirrhotic patients for a total of 448 hospitalizations were prospectively collected. Prevalence of BI at admission was 28.3%. Median (range) Log10PSP in the whole cohort was 2.83 (2.48-3.19) ng/L, significantly higher in patients with BI than in patients without (p<0.001). For a cutoff value of 2.87 ng/L, Log10PSP showed sensitivity, specificity and AUC-ROC of 0.66 (95% CI 0.57-0.74), 0.63 (95% CI 0.57-0.68) and 0.69 (95% CI 0.63-0.73), lower than that of C-reactive protein (p=0.002), but similar to procalcitonin (p=0.18) Patients with BI at hospitalization had higher probability of 28-day mortality (sub-hazard ratio [sHR] 2.65;95% CI 1.49-4.70; p=0.001). At multivariate Cox's regression analysis, Log10PSP (sHR 2.4; 95% CI 1.22-4.82; p=0.01) together with age and severity of liver disease, was an independent predictor of short-term mortality. Conclusions PSP shows low diagnostic accuracy for BI in cirrhosis, but it is an independent predictor of short-term mortality. PSP may be a biomarker of systemic inflammation, commonly seen in end-stage liver disease.