Comparison of external jugular vein-based surface landmark approach and ultrasound-guided approach for internal jugular venous cannulation: A randomised crossover clinical trial

Link to article at PubMed

Int J Clin Pract. 2020 Oct 23:e13783. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.13783. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Historically, landmark techniques for central venous access through the internal jugular vein (IJV) have yielded a lesser success rate and higher complication rate than the ultrasound (US)-guided approach. The purpose of this study is to assess the success and safety of a novel external jugular vein (EJV)-based landmark (EJV-LM) approach compared with the real-time US-guided approach for central venous access through the IJV.

METHODS: This was a prospective, randomised, crossover trial performed in patients during elective cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Each resident randomly inserted a central venous catheter using EJV-LM approach and real-time US-guided approach. The primary outcome was first-attempt success. Secondary outcomes included overall success rate, number of puncture attempts, cannulation time, haematoma and mechanical complications.

RESULTS: A total of 188 patients were randomly assigned to the EJV-LM and US groups. The demographic characteristics of the groups were comparable. The first-attempt success was not different between EJV-LM and US-guided techniques (79.8%; [95% CI: 70.2-87.4] vs 89.4% [95% CI 81.3-94.8]; P = .06). The overall success rate was 100% with both techniques. There were no differences in the number of puncture attempts with introducer needle (1[1-3] vs 1[1-2]; P = .07). Cannulation time was longer in the EJV-LM group compared with the US group (58.11 ± 6.6 vs 44.27 ± 5.28 seconds; P = .0001). EJV-LM technique was associated with a higher occurrence of overall complications compared with the US technique (12.8% [95% CI: 6.7- 21.2] vs 4.2% [95% CI: 1.1-10.5]; P = .03). No major mechanical complications were observed with either techniques.

CONCLUSIONS: In patients with non-distorted neck anatomy and a visible EJV, IJV catheterisation using the EJV-based LM approach and standard US-guided technique yielded similar first-attempt and overall success rates. Cannulation time was longer and complications occurred more frequently in the EJV-based LM compared with the standard US-guided technique.

PMID:33095965 | DOI:10.1111/ijcp.13783

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