Cleve Clin J Med. 2020 Oct 1;87(10):633-639. doi: 10.3949/ccjm.87a.19117.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) cause significant inpatient morbidity and mortality. They are especially challenging to diagnose promptly in the intensive care unit because a plethora of other causes can contribute to clinical decline in complex, critically ill patients. The authors describe the diagnosis, management, and prevention of these diseases based on current guidelines and recent evidence.