Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2020 Nov;38(4):755-769. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2020.06.003. Epub 2020 Jul 30.
There are approximately 350,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and 200,000 in-hospital cardiac arrests annually in the United States, with survival rates of approximately 5% to 10% and 24%, respectively. The critical factors that have an impact on cardiac arrest survival include prompt recognition and activation of prehospital care, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and rapid defibrillation. Advanced life support protocols are continually refined to optimize intracardiac arrest management and improve survival with favorable neurologic outcome. This article focuses on current treatment recommendations for adult nontraumatic cardiac arrest, with emphasis on the latest evidence and controversies regarding intracardiac arrest management.