Front Immunol. 2020 Sep 2;11:2160. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.02160. eCollection 2020.
BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is spreading worldwide. Measuring the prevention and control of the disease has become a matter requiring urgent focus.
OBJECTIVE: Based on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical data from Wuhan, we conducted an in-depth analysis to clarify some of the pathological mechanisms of the disease and identify simple measures to predict its severity early on.
METHODS: A total of 230 patients with non-mild COVID-19 were recruited, and information on their clinical characteristics, inflammatory cytokines, and T lymphocyte subsets was collected. Risk factors for severity were analyzed by binary logistic regression, and the associations of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (N/LRs) with illness severity, disease course, CT grading, inflammatory cytokines, and T lymphocyte subsets were evaluated.
RESULTS: Our results showed that the N/LRs were closely related to interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 (P < 0.001, P = 0.024) and to CD3+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes (P < 0.001, P = 0.046). In particular, the N/LRs were positively correlated with the severity and course of the disease (P = 0.021, P < 0.001). Compared to the values at the first test after admission, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, as of the last test before discharge (P = 0.006, P < 0.001). More importantly, through binary logistic regression, we found that male sex, underlying diseases (such as cardiovascular disease), pulse, and N/LRs were all closely related to the severity of the disease (P = 0.004, P = 0.012, P = 0.013, P = 0.028).
CONCLUSIONS: As a quick and convenient marker of inflammation, N/LRs may predict the disease course and severity level of non-mild COVID-19; male sex, cardiovascular disease, and pulse are also risk factors for the severity of non-mild COVID-19.