Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 28:1-22. doi: 10.1007/s10096-020-04001-8. Online ahead of print.
Coronaviruses are a group of envelop viruses which lead to diseases in birds and mammals as well as human. Seven coronaviruses have been discovered in humans that can cause mild to lethal respiratory tract infections. HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1 are the low-risk members of this family and the reason for some common colds. Besides, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and newly identified SARS-CoV-2, which is also known as 2019-nCoV, are the more dangerous viruses. Due to the rapid spread of this novel coronavirus and its related disease, COVID-19, a reliable, simple, fast, and low-cost detection method is necessary for patient diagnosis and tracking worldwide. Human coronaviruses detection methods were classified and presented in this article. The laboratory detection techniques include RT-PCR, RT-LAMP, electrochemical and optical biosensors for RNA detection, and whole virus or viral proteins detection assays.