J Korean Med Sci. 2020 Sep 21;35(37):e333. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e333.
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective case series of patients with COVID-19 enrolled from February 22 to March 26, 2020. Forty cases of COVID-19 were confirmed using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction among patients who underwent screening tests and were consecutively hospitalized at Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan, Korea. The final follow-up date was May 19, 2020. All COVID-19 cases in Ulsan were included. Demographic and epidemiological information, comorbidities, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory and radiologic findings, medications, treatments, outcomes, and main durations of patients with COVID-19 were compared according to supplemental oxygen requirement.
RESULTS: Forty patients were included (median age, 30 years; interquartile range [IQR], 25-57 years; 58% female). Six (15%) patients required supplemental oxygen. The prevalence of asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was 5% and that of presymptomatic infection was 13%. Cough, fever, myalgia, rhinorrhea or nasal congestion, and diarrhea were the screening criteria for diagnosing symptomatic and presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Sputum production, chest discomfort, a large number of symptoms, abnormal procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels, and abnormal chest X-ray or chest computed tomography findings were more common in patients requiring supplemental oxygen than in those not requiring supplemental oxygen. Overall mortality rate was 3% (1/40). Four patients (10%) were readmitted after testing positive by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction again. Incubation period was 5 days (IQR, 4-6 days), and the duration of viral shedding was 21 days (IQR, 14-28 days; maximum, 51 days).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was 5%, which is much lower than that previously reported. This finding suggests that careful interviews and follow-ups should be performed to identify SARS-CoV-2 infections. Cough, fever, myalgia, rhinorrhea or nasal congestion, and diarrhea are adequate screening criteria for covering all symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further evaluation is required to create representative screening criteria for COVID-19.