Am J Kidney Dis. 2020 Sep 19:S0272-6386(20)30999-9. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.09.003. Online ahead of print.
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Underlying kidney disease is an emerging risk factor for more severe COVID-19 illness. We examined the clinical courses of critically ill COVID-19 patients with and without pre-existing kidney disease and investigated the association between degree of underlying kidney disease and in-hospital outcomes.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: 4,264 critically ill COVID-19 patients (143 dialysis patients, 521 chronic kidney disease [CKD] patients, and 3,600 patients without CKD) admitted to ICUs at 68 hospitals in the United States.
PREDICTOR(S): Presence (versus absence) of pre-existing kidney disease OUTCOME(S): In-hospital mortality (primary); respiratory failure, shock, ventricular arrhythmia/ cardiac arrest, thromboembolic event, major bleed, and acute liver injury (secondary) ANALYTICAL APPROACH: We used standardized differences to compare patient characteristics (values >0.10 indicate a meaningful difference between groups) and multivariable adjusted Fine and Gray survival models to examine outcome associations.
RESULTS: Dialysis patients had a shorter time from symptom onset to ICU admission compared to other groups (median [quartile 1-quartile 3] days: 4 [2-9] for dialysis patients; 7 [3-10] for CKD patients; 7 [4-10] for patients without pre-existing kidney disease). More dialysis patients (25%) reported altered mental status than those with CKD (20%, standardized difference = 0.12) and no kidney disease (12%, standardized difference = 0.36). Half of dialysis and CKD patients died within 28-days of ICU admission versus 35% of patients without pre-existing kidney disease. Compared to patients without pre-existing kidney disease, dialysis patients had a higher risk of 28-day in-hospital death (adjusted HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.09, 1.81), while patients with CKD had an intermediate risk (adjusted HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.08, 1.44).
LIMITATIONS: Potential residual confounding CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the high mortality of individuals with underlying kidney disease and severe COVID-19, underscoring the importance of identifying safe and effective COVID-19 therapies for this vulnerable population.