Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 17;10(1):15227. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-72204-2.
Using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays with sex-specific 99th percentiles may improve management of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We investigated the impact of transitioning from a conventional troponin I assay to a high-sensitivity assay with sex-specific thresholds, in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome admitted to Swedish coronary care units. Based on data from SWEDEHEART registry (females, n = 4,819/males, n = 7,670), we compared periods before and after implementation of hs-cTnI assay (Abbott) using sex-specific 99th percentiles. We investigated differences on discharge diagnosis, in-hospital examinations, treatments, and clinical outcome. Upon implementation of the hs-cTnI assay, proportion of patients with troponin levels above diagnostic AMI threshold increased in women and men by 24.3% versus 14.8%, respectively. Similarly, incidence of AMI increased by 11.5% and 9.8%. Diagnostic interventions and treatments increased regardless of sex. However, these associations did not persist following multivariable adjustment, probably due to the effect of temporal management trends during the observation period. Overall, no risk reduction on major adverse cardiovascular events was observed (HR: 0.91 [95% CI 0.80-1.03], P = 0.126). The implementation of hs-cTnI assay together with sex-specific 99th percentiles was associated with an increase in incidence of AMI regardless of sex, but had no major impact on clinical management and prognosis.