Dis Mon. 2020 Jul 28:101058. doi: 10.1016/j.disamonth.2020.101058. Online ahead of print.
With the emergence of COVID-19 extensive research began to identify medications, candidate compounds and other therapeutic approaches. The complex virology of COVID-19 may provide multiple potential target points for antiviral therapy, and vaccines; extensive global research is underway to exploit these potential opportunities. The complex pathophysiology, pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease, and immune mediated effects such as cytokine storm, make medical management more challenging than many viral illnesses. Non medication based interventions including hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), aggressive dialysis, and other interventions, all with various degrees of clinical success, and will be discussed in this section. Several antivirals approved for other clinical indications were studied for repurposing against COVID-19, which we highlight, again with varying results. In addition to therapeutics, concern was raised over potential risks associated with ACE inhibitors and ARB use, which is presented. Often the timing of the medication determined its clinical benefit as will be discussed with dexamethasone and other medications. As such, this Therapeutics Review will present prominent and/or promising medications and therapeutic approaches with the caveats that 1. To date, none are FDA approved beyond emergency use authorization (EUA), and 2. Although a comprehensive look at various classes of interventions, it is by no means a complete list of every compound trialed against COVID-19. Recognizing the knowledge basis upon which we treat COVID-19 patients, develop therapeutics, and vaccines continues to evolve as new information is presented, every effort nevertheless has been made to provide as timely information as possible. It is hoped that the information shared can help guide the clinician in terms of potential options to treat this complex group of patients.