An Integrated Review of the Hepatorenal Syndrome

Link to article at PubMed

Ann Hepatol. 2020 Aug 23:S1665-2681(20)30141-1. doi: 10.1016/j.aohep.2020.07.008. Online ahead of print.


Among the complications of cirrhosis, hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is characterized by having the worst survival rate. HRS is a disorder that involves the deterioration of kidney function caused primarily by a systemic circulatory dysfunction, but in recent years, systemic inflammation and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy have been discovered to also play an important role. The diagnosis of HRS requires to meet the new International Club of Ascites-Acute Kidney Injury (ICA-AKI) and Hepatorenal Syndrome-Acute Kidney Injury (HRS-AKI) criteria after ruling out other causes of kidney injury. At the time of diagnosis, it is important to start the medical treatment as soon as possible where three types of vasoconstrictors have been recognized: vasopressin analogs (ornipressin and terlipressin), alpha-adrenergic agonists (norepinephrine and midodrine) and somatostatin analogues (octreotide); all should be combined with albumin infusion. Among them, terlipressin and albumin are the first lines of treatment in most cases, although terlipressin should be monitor closely due to its adverse events. The best treatment of choice is a liver transplant, because it is the only definitive treatment for this disease.

PMID:32846202 | DOI:10.1016/j.aohep.2020.07.008

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