Am J Prev Cardiol. 2020 Jun;2:100038. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpc.2020.100038. Epub 2020 Jul 15.
The global burden of hypertension (HTN) is immense and increasing. In fact, HTN is the leading risk factor for adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes. Due to the critical significance and increasing prevalence of the disease, several national and international societies have recently updated their guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of HTN. In consideration of the COVID-19 pandemic, this report provides clinicians with the best strategies to prevent HTN, manage the acute and long-term cardiac complications of HTN, and provide the best evidence-based care to patients in an ever-changing healthcare environment. The overarching goal of the various HTN guidelines is to provide easily accessible information to healthcare providers and public health officials, which is key for optimal clinical practice. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the ability to provide safe care to the most vulnerable hypertensive populations throughout the world. Therefore, this review compares the most recent guidelines of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and multiple U.S. societies, the 2018 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension, the 2019 National Institute for Care and Health Excellence, and the 2020 International Society of Hypertension. While a partial emphasis is placed on the management of HTN in the midst of COVID-19, this review will summarize current concepts and emerging data from the listed HTN guidelines on the diagnosis, monitoring, management, and evidence-based treatments in adults.