J Am Soc Nephrol. 2020 Jul 15:ASN.2020040509. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2020040509. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Reports from centers treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have noted that such patients frequently develop AKI. However, there have been no direct comparisons of AKI in hospitalized patients with and without COVID-19 that would reveal whether there are aspects of AKI risk, course, and outcomes unique to this infection.
METHODS: In a retrospective observational study, we evaluated AKI incidence, risk factors, and outcomes for 3345 adults with COVID-19 and 1265 without COVID-19 who were hospitalized in a large New York City health system and compared them with a historical cohort of 9859 individuals hospitalized a year earlier in the same health system. We also developed a model to identify predictors of stage 2 or 3 AKI in our COVID-19.
RESULTS: We found higher AKI incidence among patients with COVID-19 compared with the historical cohort (56.9% versus 25.1%, respectively). Patients with AKI and COVID-19 were more likely than those without COVID-19 to require RRT and were less likely to recover kidney function. Development of AKI was significantly associated with male sex, Black race, and older age (>50 years). Male sex and age >50 years associated with the composite outcome of RRT or mortality, regardless of COVID-19 status. Factors that were predictive of stage 2 or 3 AKI included initial respiratory rate, white blood cell count, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, and lactate dehydrogenase level.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 had a higher incidence of severe AKI compared with controls. Vital signs at admission and laboratory data may be useful for risk stratification to predict severe AKI. Although male sex, Black race, and older age associated with development of AKI, these associations were not unique to COVID-19.