Risk factors for myocardial injury and death in patients with COVID-19: insights from a cohort study with chest computed tomography

Link to article at PubMed

Ferrante G, et al. Cardiovasc Res 2020.

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Whether pulmonary artery (PA) dimension and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, as assessed by chest computed tomography (CT), are associated with myocardial injury in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not known. The aim of this study was to explore the risk factors for myocardial injury and death and to investigate whether myocardial injury has an independent association with all-cause mortality in patients with COVID-19.

METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a single-centre cohort study including consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 undergoing chest CT on admission. Myocardial injury was defined as high-sensitivity troponin I > 20 ng/L on admission. A total of 332 patients with a median follow-up of 12 days were included. There were 68 (20.5%) deaths; 123 (37%) patients had myocardial injury. PA diameter was higher in patients with myocardial injury compared with patients without myocardial injury [29.0 (25th-75th percentile, 27-32) mm vs. 27.7 (25-30) mm, <iP > < 0.001). PA diameter was independently associated with an increased risk of myocardial injury [adjusted odds ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.19, P = 0.01] and death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.17, P = 0.01]. Compared with patients without myocardial injury, patients with myocardial injury had a lower prevalence of a CAC score of zero (25% vs. 55%, <iP > < 0.001); however, the CAC score did not emerge as a predictor of myocardial injury by multivariable logistic regression. Myocardial injury was independently associated with an increased risk of death by multivariable Cox regression (adjusted HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.27-3.96, P = 0.005). Older age, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, and lower PaO<sub2>/FiO<sub2> ratio on admission were other independent predictors for both myocardial injury and death.

CONCLUSIONS: An increased PA diameter, as assessed by chest CT, is an independent risk factor for myocardial injury and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Myocardial injury is independently associated with an approximately two-fold increased risk of death.

TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: The present study identifies myocardial injury as a clinically relevant independent risk factor for death in the short term in a population of hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 outside of China undergoing chest computed tomography for suspected pneumonia on admission.The study also provides novel insights into the risk factors for myocardial injury, showing that an increased pulmonary artery diameter, assessed by chest computed tomography, is an independent predictor of myocardial injury as well as of mortality, suggesting that pulmonary circulation dysfunction is a pivotal pathological event with cardiac implications in COVID-19.

PMID:32637999 | DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvaa193

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